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KNEC KCSE Geography Paper 2 Question Paper / 2015 KCSE Tharaka South Joint Examination

KNEC KCSE Geography Paper 2 Question Paper / 2015 KCSE Tharaka South Joint Examination

2015 KCSE Tharaka South Joint Examination

Geography Paper 2

SECTION A (25 Marks)

Answer all questions in section A.

1.

a) Define the term zoning. 2mks
b) Identify three main zones of an ideal urban center. 3mks

 5 marks

2.

a)What is placer mining? 2mks
b) Differentiate between a vein and a lode. 2mks

 4 marks

3.

a) Differentiate between andromous fishing and crustacean fishing. 2mks
b) Name the commercial fish species caught along the coast of East Africa. 3mks

 5 marks

4.

a) What is a cottage industry? 2mks
b) Give four reasons why the government of Kenya encourages the establishment of Jua Kali industries. 4mks

 6 marks

5.

a)Use the map of Kenya below to answer question (a)
i) Name the national park marked X. 1MK
ii) The game reserve marked Y. 1mk
iii) The marine reserve marked Z. 1mk
c) Apart from establishing national parks and game reserves, state two other ways through which the government of Kenya conserves wildlife. 2mks

 5 marks

SECTION B (75 Marks)

Answer question 6 and any other two questions in this section

6.

The data below represents sugarcane production in five major factories in Kenya. Use it to answer the following question.

FACTORY PRODUCTION IN ‘000 TONES
Sony 50
Nzoia 100
Chemelil 200
Muhoroni 250
Mumias 400

a) i) Using the data above, draw a divided rectangle 15cm length. 7mks
ii) Give the difference ion tonnage produced by Muhoroni and Nzoia companies. 1mk
iii) List two advantages of representing data using a divided rectangle. 2mks
b) Explain four physical conditions required for the growth of sugarcane successfully in Kenya. 8mks
c) i)State three uses of sugar. 3mks
ii)State four benefits of sugarcane growing to the Kenyan economy. 4mks

 25 marks

7.

a) List two levels of domestic trade. 2mks
b) Define balance of payment . 2mks
c) i)List three main imports to Kenya. 3mks
ii) List five problems facing trade in Kenya. 5mks
d) Explain four reasons why trade amongst Africa countries is not well developed. 8mks
e) State five benefits that a country enjoys by being a member of a trading bloc. 5mks

 25 marks

8.

a) i)Define eco -tourism. 1mk
ii) Name two Game reserves found in the Rift Valley of Kenya. 2mks
iii) Give the differences between National parks and Game Reserves. 4mks
b) i) State three factors that hinder domestic tourism in Kenya. 3mks
ii) Give two negative effects of tourism in Kenya. 2mks
c) i) Give two differences between tourist attractions in Kenya and those of Switzerland. 2mks
ii) Give two reasons why domestic tourism is encouraged in Kenya. 2mks
iii) Explain three physical factors favouring tourism in Switzerland. 6mks

iv) State three reasons why the government of Kenya encourages foreign tourists. 3mks

 25 marks

9.

.a) i)Differentiate between indigenous and exotic forests. 2mks
ii) The map below shows Kenya’s forest Zones. Study and use it to answer the questions that follow.
Identify forests marked M and R. 2MKS
iii)State three factors that lead to depletion of forests in Kenya. 3mks
b) Explain three factors that favour the growth of natural forests on the slopes of Mt. Kenya.6mks
c) Compare forestry in Kenya and Canada under the following subheadings:
i)Distribution of forests. 2mks
ii)Mode of exploitation 2mks
iii) Transport. 2mks
d) i) State three factors favouring the development of softwood forests in Canada. 3mks
ii) Give three measures used to conserve forests in Kenya. 3mks

 25 marks

10.

a) i)Name three main modes of transport in Kenya. 3mks
ii) Give three ways in which cell phones contribute to Kenya’s economic development. 2mks
iii) State two problems facing communication in Kenya. 2mks
b) Explain four advantages of rail transport over road transport. 8mks
c) Use the map of Africa to answer the following questions.
i)Name the highway marked X and Y. 2mks
ii) Name the town marked M. 1mk
iii) Name the country marked V. 1mk
d) i) Give two reasons why it is difficult to transport goods from Mombasa to Lagos by road. 2mks
ii) State four efforts that have been made to improve transport in Africa. 4mks​

 25 marks

 

2015 KCSE Tharaka South Joint Examination

Geography Paper 2

SECTION A (25 Marks)

Answer all questions in section A.

1.

a)Stratification of urban centers through models that outline the internal structure of an urban area. 2mks
b) -Central Business District (CBD)
-Transitional Zone
-Industrial Zone
-Residential Zone
-Commuter Zone any 3×1=3mks

 5 marks

2.

a) Mining that occurs in the alluvial deposits along river valleys and delta.2mks
b) Vein- are minerals which form in cracks and joints in rocks when magma solidifies in small quantities ,while Lodes-Mineral that forms from solidification of magma in cracks and joints in large quantities.2mks
NB: While must be mentioned to score.

 4 marks

3.

a)Andromous : type of fishing where the fish caught breed in rivers and liver in the ocean.
Crustacean: Fishing that involves catching of sea animals other than fish.
b) Kingfish
-Tuna
-mullet
-Sardines
-Borito. Any 3×1=3mks

 5 marks

4.

a)Cottage industry is a small scale industry which uses raw materials and requires little capital to start and operate.2mks
b)-
– It requires little capital investment.
– It decentralizes industries reducing rural urban migration.
– Requires little skills
– Encourages innovations
– To diversify export goods.
– To cater for local needs/save on foreign exchange.
– To produce cheap consumer goods.
– To make use of locally available raw materials.
– To create employment opportunities.
– Urban sprawl: Expansion of human settlement away from the central urban areas into previously remote and rural areas. Any 4×1=4mks

 6 marks

5.

a) i) X –Amboseli 1mk
ii)\y-Marsabit 1mk
iii)Malindi 1mk
b)
– Establishment of research centers to train people on wildlife management.
– Veterinary services to treat the animals
– Public campaigns on the importance of wildlife.
– Employment of game wardens to prevent poaching.

Tittle a divided triangle
Correct length 15cm1
ii)Difference in tonnage produced by Muhoroni and Nzoia companies 1mk
Muhoroni 250,000
Nzoia 100,000
250,000-100,000=150,000tonnes. 1×1=1mk
iii) Advantages of representing data using a divided rectangle 2mks
– It is easy to compare the components
– Can accommodate different types of items
– Gives a good visual impression. 2×1=2mks
b)Physical conditions required for growing sugarcanes successfully in Kenya.
– High temperature ranging 200
-270
Cthrough out the year .this promotes sugar accumulation.
– Rainfall between 1250mm to 2000mm throughout the year /high rainfall.
– Soils should be well drained, black cotton or clay soils that retain a lot of water.
– Topography of the land should be undulating flat or gently sloping. This allows mechanization especially in land preparation eg ploughing.
– Dry sunny harvesting spell which allows for maximum accumulation of sucrose and eases the harvesting and transportation of cane. 4X2=8mks
c) i)Uses of sugar
– Used as sweetener in beverage and foods.
– It is used in making confectioneries eg bread ,cakes, biscuits.
– It is used in making industrial alcohol eg ethanol.
– Molasses is used in livestock feeds.
– Brown coarse sugar and molasses are used in manufacturing of local brews.
– Cane residue (bagasse) Is used as fuel and manure.
ii)Benefits of sugarcane growing to the Kenyan economy. 4mks
– It has created employment to many Kenyans.
– Establishment of sugar mills in the growing areas contributes to industrial development
– Sugarcane growing is a source of raw material for industrial plant eg manufacture of industrial spirits.
– Sugarcane has contributed to the growth of towns eg Muorobni.
– It has produced sugar for industrial use hence saving foreign exchange that could be used in importation.
– Source of income to the farmer hence raising their living standards.4X1=4MKS

 5 marks

SECTION B (75 Marks)

Answer question 6 and any other two questions in this section

6.

a)Sony
15cm →1000(000) tonnes
? ← 50
15×50÷1000 = 75/100
=0.75 cm1

Nzoia
15×100
1000
=1.5cm1

Chemelil
15×200
1000
=3cm1

Muhoroni
15×250
1000
=3.75cm1

Mumias
15×400
1000
=6cm1

Tittle a divided triangle
Correct length 15cm1
ii)Difference in tonnage produced by Muhoroni and Nzoia companies 1mk
Muhoroni 250,000
Nzoia 100,000
250,000-100,000=150,000tonnes. 1×1=1mk
iii) Advantages of representing data using a divided rectangle 2mks
– It is easy to compare the components
– Can accommodate different types of items
– Gives a good visual impression. 2×1=2mks
b)Physical conditions required for growing sugarcanes successfully in Kenya.
– High temperature ranging 200
-270
Cthrough out the year .this promotes sugar accumulation.
– Rainfall between 1250mm to 2000mm throughout the year /high rainfall.
– Soils should be well drained, black cotton or clay soils that retain a lot of water.
– Topography of the land should be undulating flat or gently sloping. This allows mechanization especially in land preparation
eg ploughing.
– Dry sunny harvesting spell which allows for maximum accumulation of sucrose and eases the harvesting and transportation of
cane. 4X2=8mks
c) i)Uses of sugar
– Used as sweetener in beverage and foods.
– It is used in making confectioneries eg bread ,cakes, biscuits.
– It is used in making industrial alcohol eg ethanol.
– Molasses is used in livestock feeds.
– Brown coarse sugar and molasses are used in manufacturing of local brews.
– Cane residue (bagasse) Is used as fuel and manure.
ii)Benefits of sugarcane growing to the Kenyan economy. 4mks
– It has created employment to many Kenyans.
– Establishment of sugar mills in the growing areas contributes to industrial development
– Sugarcane growing is a source of raw material for industrial plant eg manufacture of industrial spirits.
– Sugarcane has contributed to the growth of towns eg Muorobni.
– It has produced sugar for industrial use hence saving foreign exchange that could be used in importation.
– Source of income to the farmer hence raising their living standards.4X1=4MKS

 25 marks

7.

a) –Retail trade
-Wholesale trade. 2×1=2mks
b) Difference in value between visible and invisible exports and visible and invisible imports.2mks
c)i)Crude oil
– Fertilizers
– Vehicles
– Pharmaceutical
– Iron and steel
– Machinery. Any first 3×1=3mks
ii)Poor infrastructure /inaccessible roads hinder movement of goods.
– Insecurity in some parts of Kenya discourage traders.
– Inadequate capital to expand trade.
– High taxation by the government and local authorities discourage trade.
– Imposition of restrictions on the goods to be imported or exported.
– Low purchasing power among Kenyans due to poverty.
– Smuggling of goods into or out of the country any 5×1=5mks
d)
– Civil wars/strife in some countries creates insecurity /discourage trade.
– Production of similar goods reduces the volume of trade.
– Poor transport and communication links hinder movement of goods.
– Free trade leads to collapsing of local industries..
– Some countries do not remit their annual subscription slowing down the operations of trade blocs. Any 4×2=8mks
e)
– Creating of a large market for goods.
– Promotion of peace and harmony among member countries.
– Expansion of sectors such as agriculture and industries which help in creation of employment opportunities.
– Improvement of transport and communication links.
– Reduced tariffs make goods cheaper to the people in the region. any 5×1=5mks

 25 marks

8.

a)i)Eco- tourism – combination of tourism with conservation of environment.1mk
ii)Game reserves found in the rift valley
– Maasai
– Bogaoria

Shabal(Marsabit)
– Samburu Buffalo springs
– Elementaita first 2×1=2mks
iii)

National park Game Reserve
-An area set aside for preservation of scenery wildlife and historical sites. -An area set aside for preservation of wild game.
-May be fenced off and no other form of land use is permitted. -Land use by the public is allowed usually for livestock grazing.
-Usually managed by the central government. -Usually managed by devolved government county authorities.

NB: Difference must be complete win order to score. 2×2=4mks
b) Three factors that hinder domestic tourism in Kenya. 3mks
– Inaccessible roads to the parks /of the roads get muddy and impassible during the rainy season.
– Poverty ie high risk cost of accommodation in hotel/lodges in game reserves.
– Kenyans do not appreciate beauty /cultural values of tourists sides.
– Foreigners are treated better than locals.
– Inadequate adverts /the locals are not aware.
ii) Two negative effects of tourism in Kenya.
– Waters down our values and traditional ethics.
– Some may bring in dangerous diseases like HIV/AIDS when they have sex with our people.
– Theft of foreign currency since most hotels are owned by foreigners. 2×1=2mks
C)i)Differences between tourists attractions in Kenya and the Switzerland.

Kenya Switzerland
-Has hot and warm climate all year round -Has hot summers and cold winters
-Has sports all year round -Has zoos and glaciated features which
form major tourists attractions.
-Coastal beaches available for use throughout the
year.
-Lakes beaches available during summer.
-Hass more varied cultural systems -Less varied cultural system

NB: Complete difference 2×1=2mks
ii)Two reasons why domestic tourism is encouraged in Kenya.
– Development of tourists facilitates which provides employment opportunities and raising standards of living.
– Earn foreign exchange used to develop other sectors of the economy.
– Tourists provide ready market for trade items.
– Has stimulated growth of agriculture and other related growth of industries due to the demand for agricultural products in the hotels.
– Establishment of National Parks and museum as tourists attractions enabled Kenyans to protect /preserve its rich cultural heritage.
– Tourist encourages cultural exchange which promotes international understanding. 2×1=2mks
iii) Three physical factors that favour tourism in Switzerland.
– Magnificent mountain scenery in Swiss Alps attract Mt. climbers.
– Glaciated lakes-numerous lakes on the Swiss plateau formed through glaciated have clean, fresh blue water for sports fishing.
– Climate –cool temperatures climate and med climate with warm summers.
– Presence of many rivers fed by the melting snow from the Mts generates HEP to run electric trains. 3×2=6mks
iv)Why Kenyan Government encourage tourists visit in Kenya.
– To earn foreign exchange /currency income.
– To create employment opportunities /jobs.
– International tourism fosters international understanding and friendship ties.
– To develop transport ie Roads to benefit local people. 3mks

 25 marks

9.

a)i) Difference between exotic and indigenous forests.
– Indigenous forest is a forest that is made of trees which are nature/natural to a country while exotic forest is a forest that is composed of
trees that are alien to a country. 2mks
ii)Forests marked
M-Equatorial 1mk
R-Montane 1mk
iii)Factors that lead to depletion of forests in Kenya.
– The government policy of de-gazettement has allowed illegal /cultivation and settlement forests.
– Increases population of elephants that destroy trees.
– Prolonged drought have caused drying up of some trees.
– Plant diseases and pests eg Aphids destroy parts of forest.
– Over- Exploitation of certain species of trees. 3×1=3mks
b)Factors that favour the growth of natural forests on the slopes of Mt. Kenya.
– The area receive high Rainfall /1100mm-2200mm throughout the yearF which encourages continuous growth of trees.E
– The area has deep fertile volcanic soil F that allows the roots to penetrate deep into the ground for proper anchorage.E
– The area is a gazette reserve prohibiting cultivation and settlement hence allowing growth of trees.
– The steep slope F discourages settlement thus E forests thrive. 3×2=6mks
c) Comparison between forestry in Kenya and Canada under the following sub headings:
i)Distribution of forests.
– In Kenya forests are mainly established in the highlands regions while in Canada the distribution involves both highlands and lowlands.
2mks
ii)Transport
– In Kenya transportation is mainly by road transport while in Canada transport is mainly by water transport.2mks

d) Factors favoring the development of softwood forests in Canada.
– Cool to cold climate favours the growth of coniferous trees.
– Rugged landscape and steep slopes discourages agriculture and settlement hence forests establish themselves naturally.
– Canada has a low population density hence a lot of land for forestry.
– Presence of heavy rainfall on the windward slopes of mountain ranges supports tree growth. 3×1=3mks
ii) Measures used to conserve forests in Kenya.
– Mature trees felled are replaced immediately (re-afforestation)
– Tree farming is practiced in many parts with the aim of raising trees for future use.
– Regions which were previously devoid of trees are being planted with trees (afforestation)
– People are now being encouraged to plant trees and food crops in the same farms/agroforestry.
– Reduction of wastage eg the use of waste paper to produce news print.
– People are required to seek permits if they have to cut trees. This reduces the rate of tree felling /unlicensed people do not cut down trees.
– Forest reserves have been set aside to conserve indigenous species.
– Forestry dept. of the ministry of natural resources carry out research to produce and distribute seedlings to ensure the extension of forests.
– People are being educated through mass media on the importance of trees. Any 3×1=3mks

 25 marks

10.

a)i) Modes of transport 3mks
-Land
-Water
-Air
ii)Transfer of money
– Ordering of goods through messages.
– Reduce movement of traders.
– Provides security in storage of money. 2×1=2mks
iii)Problems facing communication in Kenya.
– Inadequate capital to install communication equipment.
– Language barrier due to diverse ethnic backgrounds /low level of education.
– Inadequate communication facilities.
– Vandalism of communication equipment /wars.
– Inefficient communication system /networks failure.
b) Four advantages of rail transport over road transport.
– Railways are more reliable and efficient because they follow a fixed time schedules unlike roads which have no fixed timetable.
– Railways can be used to move heavy and bulky goods at low rate over long distance compared to roads which are expensive over short
distances.
– Once build railways do not require frequent relaying unlike roads which are frequently resurfaced.
– Railways are normally narrow hence economical in terms of landscape used by rails. Roads take alot of space on some are very wide.
– Railways are less susceptible to traffic jams unlike roads which usually have traffic jams.
– Trains are less prone to accidents than motor vehicles.
– Passenger trains have facilities like accommodation, dining and toils which makes the passengerscomfortable while travelling while such
facilities are rare in road transport. Any 4×2=8mks
c) i)Highways marked
X-Trans Saharan highway1
Y- Trans African highway1
ii)M-Dakar 1
V- Democratic Republic of Congo1
d)i) Reasons why it is difficult to transport goods from Mombasa to Lagos by road.
– Tariffs charged at border points increase transportation costs.
– There is long distance between the two parts which would take a long time.
– Some parts of the highway are impassable during the wet season.
– There are civic wars / banditry along the way eg DRC.
– There are political differences and hostilities between some countries through which the highway passes.2×1=2mkls
ii) Four efforts to improve transport in Africa.
– Construction of highways across continents
– Construction of international railways with similar gauge
– Construct ion of national and international airports.
– Establishment of regional /economic cooperation eg COMESA ,EAC etc.
– Sourcing of funds from external lending bodies eg World Bank, IMF.
– Diversifying forum of transport.
– Invest in training to equip citizens with the technical skills linked with transport sector.
– Reservoirs have been constructed across some rivers to improve navigation eg L. Kariba along Zambezi.Any 4×1=4mks​

 25 marks

 

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